Mumbaī, IPA: [mʊmbaɪ](
formerly known as Bombay (/bɒmˈbeɪ/),
is the capital of the
Indian state of
Maharashtra. It is the
most populous city in India, and the second
most populous city in the world, with a population of
approximately 14 million.
Along with the
neighbouring urban areas, including the cities of
Navi Mumbai and
Thane, it is one of the most populous
urban regions in the world.
Mumbai lies on the
west coast of India and has a deep natural harbour. As
of 2009, Mumbai was named an
Alpha world city.
Mumbai is also the richest city in India,
and has the
highest GDP of any city in
seven islands that came to constitute Mumbai were home
to communities of
fishing colonies. For centuries, the islands came under
the control of successive
indigenous empires before being ceded to the
Portuguese and subsequently to the
British East India Company. During the mid-18th century,
Mumbai was reshaped by the British with large-scale civil
and emerged as a significant trading town. Economic and
educational development characterised the city during the
19th century. It became a strong base for the
Indian independence movement during the early 20th
century. When India became independent in 1947, the city was
Bombay State. In 1960, following the
Samyukta Maharashtra movement, a new state of
Maharashtra was created with Bombay as capital. It was
renamed Mumbai in 1995.
Mumbai is the commercial and
entertainment capital of India, generating 5% of India's
and accounting for 25% of industrial output, 70% of maritime
trade in India (Mumbai
Port Trust &
and 70% of capital transactions to
Mumbai is home to important financial institutions such as
Reserve Bank of India, the
Bombay Stock Exchange, the
National Stock Exchange of India and the corporate
headquarters of numerous
Indian companies and
multinational corporations. It houses India's premier
nuclear institutes like
AECI, and the
Department of Atomic Energy. The city also houses
India's Hindi & Marathi
film and television industry, known as
Bollywood. Mumbai's business opportunities, as well as
its potential to offer a higher
standard of living, attract migrants from all over India
and, in turn, make the city a
potpourri of many communities and
The name Mumbai is an
eponym, derived from Mumba or Maha-Amba—the
name of the
Mumbadevi—and Aai, "mother" in the language of
The oldest known names for the
city are Kakamuchee and Galajunkja; these are
sometimes still used.
Ali Muhammad Khan, in the Mirat-i-Ahmedi (1507)
referred to the city as Manbai.
Gaspar Correia used the name Bombaim, in his
Lendas da Índia ("Legends of India").
This name possibly originated as the
Old Portuguese phrase bom baim, meaning "good
and Bombaim is still commonly used in
In 1516, Portuguese explorer
Duarte Barbosa used the name Tana-Maiambu:
Tana appears to refer to the adjoining town of
Thane and Maiambu to Mumbadevi.
Other variations recorded in
the 16th and the 17th centuries include: Mombayn
(1525), Bombay (1538), Bombain (1552),
Bombaym (1552), Monbaym (1554), Mombaim
(1563), Mombaym (1644), Bambaye (1666),
Bombaiim (1666), Bombeye (1676), and Boon Bay
British gained possession of the city in the 17th
Portuguese name was officially
anglicised as Bombay.
By the late 20th century, the
city was known as Mumbai or Mambai to
Gujarati speakers and as Bambai in
Urdu. The English name was officially changed to
Mumbai in November 1995.
This came at the insistence of the
Shiv Sena party that had just won the Maharashtra state
elections and mirrored similar name changes across the
country. A theory was proposed suggesting that “Bombay” was
a corrupted English version of “Mumbai” and an unwanted
legacy of British colonial rule. The push to rename Bombay
was part of a larger movement to strengthen Marathi identity
in the Maharashtra region. However, the city is still
referred to as Bombay by some of its residents and Indians
from other regions as well.
However, mentions of the city by the name other than
Mumbai have been controversial, resulting in emotional
outbursts sometimes of a violently political nature.
A widespread popular etymology
of Bombay holds that it was derived from a Portuguese
name meaning "good bay". This is based on the facts that
bom is Portuguese for "good" and baía (or the
archaic spelling bahia) means "bay". However, this
literal translation would have been incorrect in
grammatical gender, as bom is masculine, while
baia is feminine; a correct Portuguese rendering of
"good bay" would be boa ba(h)ia. Having said this,
baim is an archaic, masculine word for "little bay".
Portuguese scholar José Pedro
Machado in his Dicionário Onomástico Etimológico da
Língua Portuguesa (1981; "Portuguese Dictionary of
Onomastics and Etymology"), seems to reject the "Bom Bahia"
hypothesis, suggesting that the presence of a bay was a
coincidence (rather than a basis of the toponym) and led to
a misconception, that the noun (bahia; "bay") was an
integral part of the Portuguese name.
Mumbai is built on what was
once an archipelago of
Old Woman's Island (also known as Little Colaba).
Pleistocene sediments found along the coastal areas
Kandivali in northern Mumbai by archaeologist Todd in
1939 suggest that these islands were inhabited since the
It is not exactly known when these islands were first
inhabited. Perhaps at the beginning of the
Common era (2000 years ago), or even possibly earlier,
they came to be occupied by the
Koli fishing community.
In the third century BCE, the
islands formed part of the
Maurya Empire, during its expansion in the south, ruled
by the Buddhist emperor,
Kanheri Caves in
Borivali were excavated in the mid-third century BCE,
and served as an important centre of Buddhism in Western
India during ancient Times.
The city then was known as Heptanesia (Ancient
Greek: A Cluster of Seven Islands) to the Greek
Ptolemy in 150 CE.
Between the second century BCE
and ninth century CE, the islands came under the control of
Kalachuris, Konkan Mauryas,
before being ruled by the
Silhara dynasty from 810 to 1260.
Some of the oldest edifices in the city built during this
Jogeshwari Caves (between 520 to 525),
Elephanta Caves (between the sixth to seventh century),
Walkeshwar Temple (10th century),
Banganga Tank (12th century).
King Bhimdev founded his kingdom in the region in the
late 13th century, and established his capital in
Mahikawati (present day
Pathare Prabhus, one of the earliest known settlers of
the city, were brought to Mahikawati from
Saurashtra in Gujarat around 1298 by Bhimdev.
Delhi Sultanate annexed the islands in 1347–48, and
controlled it till 1407. During this time, the islands were
administered by the Muslim Governors of
Gujarat, who were appointed by the Delhi Sultanate.
The islands were later
governed by the independent
Gujarat Sultanate, which was established in 1407. The
Sultanate's patronage led to the construction of many
mosques, prominent being the
Haji Ali Dargah in
Worli, built in honour of the Muslim saint
Haji Ali in 1431.
From 1429 to 1431, the islands were a source of contention
between the Gujarat Sultanate and the
Bahamani Sultanate of Deccan.
Bahadur Khan Gilani of the Bahamani Sultanate attempted
to conquer the islands, but was defeated.
Mughal Empire, founded in 1526, was the dominant power
Indian subcontinent during the mid-16th century.
Growing apprehensive of the power of the
Sultan Bahadur Shah of the Gujarat Sultanate was obliged
to sign the
Treaty of Bassein with the
Portuguese Empire on 23 December 1534. According to the
treaty, the seven islands of Bombay, the nearby strategic
Bassein and its dependencies were offered to the
Portuguese. The territories were later surrendered on 25
The Portuguese were actively involved in the foundation and
growth of their
Roman Catholic religious orders in Bombay.
Some of the oldest Catholic
churches in the city such as the
St. Michael's Church at
St. John the Baptist Church at
St. Andrew's Church at
Gloria Church at
date from the Portuguese era. On 11 May 1661, the marriage
Charles II of England and
Catherine of Braganza, daughter of
King John IV of Portugal, placed the islands in
possession of the
British Empire, as part of Catherine's dowry to Charles.
Wadala still remained under Portuguese possession. From
1665 to 1666, the British managed to acquire Mahim, Sion,
Dharavi, and Wadala.
These islands were in turn
leased to the
British East India Company in 1668 for a sum of
£10 per annum by the
Royal Charter of 27 March 1668.
The population quickly rose from 10,000 in 1661, to 60,000
The islands were subsequently attacked by
Yakut Khan, the
Siddi admiral of the
Mughal Empire, in October 1672,
Rickloffe van Goen, the Governor-General of
Dutch India on 20 February 1673,
Sambal on 10 October 1673.
In 1687, the British East
India Company transferred its headquarters from
Surat to Bombay. The city eventually became the
headquarters of the
Following the transfer, Bombay was placed at the head of all
the Company's establishments in India.
Towards the end of the 17th century, the islands again
suffered incursions from Yakut Khan in 1689–90.
The Portuguese presence ended in Bombay when the
Baji Rao I captured
Salsette in 1737, and
Bassein in 1739.
By the middle of the 18th
century, Bombay began to grow into a major trading town, and
received a huge influx of migrants from across India.
Later, the British occupied Salsette on 28 December 1774.
Treaty of Surat (1775), the British formally gained
control of Salsette and Bassein, resulting in the
First Anglo-Maratha War.
The British were able to secure Salsette from the Marathas
without violence through the
Treaty of Purandar (1776),
and later through the
Treaty of Salbai (1782), signed to settle the outcome of
the First Anglo-Maratha War.
From 1782 onwards, the city
was reshaped with large-scale civil engineering projects
aimed at merging all the seven islands into a single
amalgamated mass. This project, known as
Hornby Vellard, was completed by 1784.
In 1817, the British East India Company under
Mountstuart Elphinstone defeated
Baji Rao II, the last of the Maratha Peshwa in
Battle of Khadki.
Following his defeat, almost the whole of the Deccan came
under British suzerainty, and were incorporated in Bombay
Presidency. The success of the British campaign in the
Deccan witnessed the freedom of Bombay from all attacks by
By 1845, the seven islands
were coalesced into a single landmass by the Hornby Vellard
On 16 April 1853, India's first passenger railway line was
established, connecting Bombay to the neighbouring town of
American Civil War (1861–1865), the city became the
world's chief cotton trading market, resulting in a boom in
the economy that subsequently enhanced the city's stature.
The opening of the
Suez Canal in 1869 transformed Bombay into one of the
largest seaports on the
In September 1896, Bombay was hit by a
bubonic plague epidemic where the death toll was
estimated at 1,900 people per week.
About 850,000 people fled Bombay and the textile industry
was adversely affected.
As the capital of the
Bombay Presidency, it witnessed the
Indian independence movement, with the
Quit India Movement in 1942 and
The Royal Indian Navy Mutiny in 1946 being its most
After India's independence in
1947, the territory of the Bombay Presidency retained by
India was restructured into
Bombay State. The area of Bombay State increased, after
several erstwhile princely states that joined the Indian
union were integrated into the state. Subsequently, the city
became the capital of Bombay State.
On April 1950, Municipal limits of Bombay were expanded by
Bombay Suburban District and
Bombay City to form Greater Bombay Municipal
Samyukta Maharashtra movement to create a separate
Maharashtra state including Bombay was at its height in the
1950s. In the
Lok Sabha discussions in 1955, the
Congress party demanded that the city be constituted as
an autonomous city-state.
States Reorganisation Committee recommended a bilingual
state for Maharashtra–Gujarat
with Bombay as its capital in its 1955 report.
Bombay Citizens' Committee, an advocacy group comprising
Gujarati industrialists lobbied for Bombay's independent
Following protests during the
movement in which 105 people were killed by police, Bombay
State was reorganised on linguistic lines on 1 May 1960.
Gujarati-speaking areas of Bombay State were partitioned
into the state of Gujarat.
Maharashtra State with Bombay as its capital was formed with
the merger of
Marathi-speaking areas of Bombay State, eight districts
Central Provinces and Berar, five districts from
Hyderabad State, and numerous princely states enclosed
As a memorial to the martyrs of the Samyukta Maharashtra
movement, Flora Fountain was renamed as
Hutatma Chowk (Martyr's Square), and a memorial was
The following decades saw
massive expansion of the city and its suburbs. In the late
Nariman Point and
Cuffe Parade were reclaimed and developed.
Bombay Metropolitan Region Development Authority (BMRDA)
was set up on 26 January 1975 by the
Government of Maharashtra as an apex body for planning
and co-ordination of development activities in the
Bombay metropolitan region.
In August 1979, a sister township of
New Bombay was founded by
City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO)
Raigad districts to help the dispersal and control of
Textile industry in Bombay largely disappeared after the
Great Bombay Textile Strike, in which nearly 250,000
workers in more than 50 textile mills went on strike.
Jawaharlal Nehru Port, which currently handles 55–60% of
India's containerized cargo, was commissioned on 26 May 1989
Nhava Sheva with a view to de-congest
Bombay Harbour and to serve as a hub port for the city.
The geographical limits of Greater Bombay were coextensive
with municipal limits of Greater Bombay. On 1 October 1990,
the Greater Bombay district was bifurcated to form two
revenue districts namely, Bombay City and Bombay Suburban,
though they were administered by same Municipal
The past two decades have seen
an increase in violence in the hitherto largely peaceful
city. Following the demolition of the
Babri Masjid in
Ayodhya, the city was rocked by the
Hindu-Muslim riots of 1992–93 in which more than
1,000 people were killed.
On 12 March 1993,
a series of 13 co-ordinated bombings at several city
landmarks by Islamic extremists and the
Bombay underworld resulted in 257 deaths and over 700
In 2006, 209 people were killed and over 700 injured when
seven bombs exploded on the city's
In 2008, a series of
ten coordinated attacks by armed terrorists for three
days resulted in 173 deaths, 308 injuries, and severe damage
to a couple of heritage landmarks and prestigious hotels.
Today, Mumbai is the commercial capital of India and has
evolved into a global financial hub.
For several decades it has been the home of India's main
financial services, and a focus for both infrastructure
development and private investment.
From being an ancient fishing community and a colonial
centre of trade, Mumbai has become
South Asia's largest city and home of the world's most
prolific film industry.
Mumbai consists of two
Mumbai City district and
Mumbai Suburban district, which form two separate
revenue districts of Maharashtra.
The city district region is also commonly referred to as the
Island City or
The total area of Mumbai is 603.4 km2 (233
Of this, the island city spans 67.79 km2 (26
sq mi), while the suburban district spans 370 km2
(143 sq mi), together accounting for 437.71 km2
(169 sq mi) under the administration of
Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC). The remaining
area belongs to Defence, Mumbai Port Trust, Atomic Energy
Commission and Borivali National Park, which are out of the
jurisdiction of the BMC.
Mumbai lies at the mouth of
Ulhas River on the western coast of India, in the
coastal region known as the
Konkan. It sits on
Salsette Island, partially shared with the
Mumbai is bounded by the
Arabian Sea to the west.
Many parts of the city lie just above sea level, with
elevations ranging from 10 m (33 ft) to 15 m (49 ft);
the city has an average
elevation of 14 m (46 ft).
Northern Mumbai (Salsette) is hilly,
and the highest point in the city is 450 m (1,476 ft) at
Salsette in the
Sanjay Gandhi National Park (Borivali National Park) is
located partly in the
Mumbai suburban district, and partly in the Thane
district, and it extends over an area of 103.09 km2
(39.80 sq mi).
Apart from the
Bhatsa Dam, there are six major lakes that supply water
to the city:
Lower Vaitarna, Upper Vaitarna,
Tulsi, Tansa and
Tulsi Lake and Vihar Lake are located in
Borivili National Park, within the city's limits.
The supply from Powai lake, also within the city limits, is
used only for agricultural and industrial purposes.
Three small rivers, the
Poinsar (or Poisar) and
Ohiwara (or Oshiwara) originate within the park, while
Mithi River originates from Tulsi Lake and gathers water
overflowing from Vihar and Powai Lakes.
The coastline of the city is indented with numerous
creeks and bays, stretching from
Thane creek on the eastern to Madh Marve on the western
The eastern coast of Salsette Island is covered with large
swamps, rich in biodiversity, while the western coast is
mostly sandy and rocky.
Soil cover in the city region
is predominantly sandy due to its proximity to the sea. In
the suburbs, the soil cover is largely alluvial and loamy.
The underlying rock of the region is composed of black
Deccan basalt flows, and their acidic and
basic variants dating back to the late
Cretaceous and early
Mumbai sits on a
seismically active zone owing to the presence of 23
fault lines in the vicinity.
The area is classified as a
Seismic Zone III region,
which means an earthquake of up to magnitude 6.5 on the
Richter-scale may be expected.
Mumbai has a
tropical climate, specifically a
tropical wet and dry climate under the
Köppen climate classification, with seven months of
dryness and peak of rains in July.
The cold season from December to February is followed by the
summer season from March to June. The period from June to
about the end of September constitutes the south-west
monsoon season, and October and November form the
Between June and September,
south west monsoon rains lash the city. Pre-monsoon
showers are received in May. Occasionally, north-east
monsoon showers occur in October and November. The maximum
annual rainfall ever recorded was 3,452 millimetres (135.9
in) for 1954.
highest rainfall recorded in a single day was 944 millimetres
(37.17 in) on 26 July 2005.
The average total annual rainfall is 2,146.6 millimetres
(84.51 in) for the Island City, and 2,457 millimetres (96.73
in) for the suburbs.
The average annual temperature
is 27.2 °C (81.0 °F), and the average annual
precipitation is 216.7 centimetres (85.31 in).
In the Island City, the average maximum temperature is
31.2 °C (88.2 °F), while the average minimum temperature is
23.7 °C (74.7 °F). In the suburbs, the daily mean maximum
temperature range from 29.1 °C (84.4 °F) to 33.3 °C
(91.9 °F), while the daily mean minimum temperature ranges
from 16.3 °C (61.3 °F) to 26.2 °C (79.2 °F).
The record high is 40.2 °C (104.4 °F) on 28 March 1982,
and the record low is 7.4 °C (45.3 °F) on 27 January 1962.
data for Mumbai
Average high °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Rainfall mm (inches)
Avg. rainy days
Source #1: World
Source #2: Hong
Mumbai is India's largest
city(by population) and is the financial and commercial
capital of the country as it generates 6.16% of the total
It serves as an economic hub of India, contributing 10% of
factory employment, 25% of industrial output, 33% of
income tax collections, 60% of
customs duty collections, 20% of central
excise tax collections, 40% of India's
foreign trade and
As of 2008, Mumbai's GDP is
and its per-capita income in 2009 was
which is almost three times the national average.
Many of India's numerous conglomerates (including
Larsen and Toubro,
State Bank of India,
Life Insurance Corporation of India,
and five of the
Fortune Global 500 companies are based in Mumbai.
Many foreign banks and financial institutions also have
branches in this area,
with the World Trade Centre being the most prominent one.
Until the 1970s, Mumbai owed
its prosperity largely to textile mills and the seaport, but
the local economy has since been diversified to include
engineering, diamond-polishing, healthcare and information
As of 2008, the Globalization and World Cities Study Group (GaWC)
has ranked Mumbai as an "Alpha world city", third in its
Mumbai is the 4th most expensive office market in the world.
Mumbai was ranked among the fastest cities in India for
business startup in 2009.
State and central government
employees make up a large percentage of the city's
workforce. Mumbai also has a large unskilled and
semi-skilled self employed population, who primarily earn
their livelihood as hawkers, taxi drivers, mechanics and
blue collar professions. The port and shipping industry
is well established, with
Mumbai Port being one of the oldest and most significant
ports in India.
Dharavi, in central Mumbai, there is an increasingly
large recycling industry, processing recyclable waste from
other parts of the city; the district has an estimated
15,000 single-room factories.
Most of India's major
television and satellite networks, as well as its major
publishing houses, are headquartered in Mumbai. The centre
of the Hindi movie industry, Bollywood, is the largest film
producer in India and one of the largest in the world as
well as centre of Marathi Film Industry.
Along with the rest of India, Mumbai, its commercial
capital, has witnessed an economic boom since the
liberalisation of 1991, the finance boom in the mid-nineties
and the IT, export, services and outsourcing boom in 2000s.
Mumbai has been ranked 48th on
Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index 2008.
In April 2008, Mumbai was ranked seventh in the list of "Top
Ten Cities for Billionaires" by
and first in terms of those billionaires' average wealth.
Mumbai, extending from
Colaba in the south, to
Dahisar in the north, and
Mankhurd in the east, is administered by the
Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC).
BMC is in charge of the civic and infrastructure needs
of the metropolis.
The Mayor is usually chosen through indirect election by the
councillors from among themselves for a term of two and half
The Municipal Commissioner is
the chief Executive Officer and head of the executive arm of
the Municipal Corporation. All executive powers are vested
Municipal Commissioner who is an
Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer appointed by
state government. Although the Municipal Corporation is
the legislative body that lays down policies for the
governance of the city, it is the Commissioner who is
responsible for the execution of the policies. The
Commissioner is appointed for a fixed term as defined by
state statute. The powers of the Commissioner are those
provided by statute and those delegated by the Corporation
or the Standing Committee.
The two revenue districts of
Mumbai come under the jurisdiction of a
The Collectors are in charge of property records and revenue
collection for the
Central Government, and oversee the national elections
held in the city.
Mumbai Police is headed by a
Police Commissioner, who is an
Indian Police Service (IPS) officer. The Mumbai Police
comes under the state Home Ministry.
The city is divided into seven police zones and seventeen
traffic police zones,
each headed by a Deputy Commissioner of Police.
The Traffic Police is a semi-autonomous body under the
Mumbai Police. The
Mumbai Fire Brigade department is headed by the Chief
Fire Officer, who is assisted by four Deputy Chief Fire
Officers and six Divisional Officers.
Mumbai is the seat of the
Bombay High Court, which exercises jurisdiction over the
states of Maharashtra and
Union Territories of
Daman and Diu and
Dadra and Nagar Haveli.
Mumbai also has two lower courts, the
Small Causes Court for civil matters, and the
Sessions Court for criminal cases.
Mumbai also has a special TADA (Terrorist and Disruptive
Activities) court for people accused of conspiring and
abetting acts of terrorism in the city.
Mumbai has been a traditional
stronghold and birthplace of the
Indian National Congress, also known as the Congress
The first session of the Indian National Congress was held
in Bombay from 28–31 December 1885.
The city played host to the Indian National Congress six
times during its first 50 years, and became a strong base
Indian independence movement during the 20th century.
The 1960s saw the rise of
regionalist politics in Bombay, with the formation of the
Shiv Sena on 19 June 1966, out of a feeling of
resentment about the relative marginalisation of the native
Marathi people in Bombay.
The party headed a campaign to expel
South Indian and
North Indian migrants by force.
The Congress had dominated the politics of Bombay from
independence until the early 1980s, when the Shiv Sena won
the 1985 Bombay municipal corporation elections.
In 1989, the
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), a major national political
party, forged an electoral alliance with the Shiv Sena to
dislodge the Congress in the Maharashtra
Legislative Assembly elections. In 1999, the
Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) separated from the
Congress, but later allied with the Congress, to form a
joint venture known as the
Currently, other parties such as
Maharashtra Navnirman Sena (MNS),
Samajwadi Party (SP),
Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), and several independent
candidates also contest elections in the city.
Indian national elections held every five years, Mumbai
is represented by six parliamentary constituencies:
Mumbai North West,
Mumbai North East,
Mumbai North Central,
Mumbai South Central, and
Member of Parliament (MP) to the
Lok Sabha, the lower house of the
Indian Parliament, is elected from each of the
parliamentary constituencies. In the
2009 national elections, out of the six parliamentary
constituencies, five were won by the Congress, and one by
In the Maharashtra state assembly elections held every five
years, Mumbai is represented by 36 assembly constituencies.
Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) to the
Vidhan Sabha (Legislative Assembly) is elected from
each of the assembly constituencies. In the
2009 state assembly elections, out of the 36 assembly
constituencies, 17 were won by the Congress, 6 by the MNS, 5
by the BJP, 4 by the Shiv Sena, 3 by the NCP and 1 by SP.
Elections are also held every five years to elect
corporators to power in the BMC.
The Corporation comprises 227
directly elected Councillors representing the
24 municipal wards, five nominated Councillors having
special knowledge or experience in municipal administration,
Mayor whose role is mostly ceremonial.
In the 2007 municipal corporation elections, out of the 227
seats, the Shiv Sena-BJP alliance secured 111 seats, holding
power in the BMC, while the Congress-NCP alliance bagged 85
The tenure of the
Mayor, Deputy Mayor, and
Municipal Commissioner is two and a half years.
BEST Starbus. BEST buses carry a total of
4.5 million passengers daily.
Public transport systems in
Mumbai include the
Mumbai Suburban Railway,
Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) buses,
black and yellow metered
auto rickshaws and
ferries. Suburban railway and BEST bus services together
accounted for about 88% of the passenger traffic in 2008.
Auto rickshaws are allowed to operate only in the suburban
areas of Mumbai, while taxis are allowed to operate
throughout Mumbai, but generally operate in South Mumbai.
Taxis and rickshaws in Mumbai
are required by law to run on
compressed natural gas,
and are a convenient, economical, and easily available means
Mumbai had about 1.53 million vehicles in 2008,
56,459 black and yellow taxis, and 102,224 auto rickshaws,
as of 2005.
Map showing major
roads, railway lines, ports and airports (Click
Mumbai is served by
National Highway 3,
National Highway 4 and
National Highway 8 of India's
National Highways system.
Mumbai-Pune Expressway was the first
expressway built in India,
Western Freeway and
Eastern Freeway is under construction. The
Bandra-Worli Sea Link bridge, along with
Mahim Causeway, links the island city to the western
The three major road arteries of the city are the
Eastern Express Highway from
Sion Panvel Expressway from
Panvel and the
Western Express Highway from
Mumbai's bus services carried
over 5.5 million passengers per day in 2008.
Public buses run by BEST cover almost all parts of the
metropolis, as well as parts of
The BEST operates a total of 4,013 buses
with CCTV Camera installed,
ferrying 4.5 million passengers daily
over 390 routes.
Its fleet consists of single-decker, double-decker,
vestibule, low-floor, disabled-friendly, air-conditioned and
Euro III compliant
Compressed Natural Gas powered buses.
Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation (MSRTC)
buses provide intercity transport and connect Mumbai with
other major cities of Maharashtra and India.
Navi Mumbai Municipal Transport (NMMT) also operate its
Volvo buses in Mumbai, from Navi Mumbai to Bandra,
Dindoshi and Borivali.
Buses are generally favored
for commuting short to medium distances, while train fares
are more economical for longer distance commutes.
The Mumbai Darshan is a
tourist bus service which explores numerous
tourist attractions in Mumbai.
Mumbai BRTS (Bus Rapid Transit System) lanes have been
planned throughout Mumbai, with buses running on seven
routes as of March 2009.
Though 88% of the city's commuters travel by public
transport, Mumbai still continues to struggle with
Mumbai's transport system has been categorized as one of the
most congested in the world.
Due to further aggravation of
congestion on roads due to hawkers and parked vehicles,
MMRDA has initiated the
Mumbai Skywalks project to provide quick and safe
pedestrian dispersal from highly congested areas such as
Mumbai Suburban Railway stations to heavily targeted
CSR Nanjing China
New trains on the
Mumbai is the headquarters of
Indian Railways' zones: the
Central Railway (CR) headquartered at
Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria
Terminus), and the
Western Railway (WR) headquartered at
The backbone of the city's transport, the
Mumbai Suburban Railway, consists of three separate rail
networks: Central, Western, and
Harbour Line, running the length of the city, in the
Mumbai's suburban rail systems
carried a total of 6.3 million passengers every day in 2007,
which is more than half of the Indian Railways daily
carrying capacity. Trains are overcrowded during peak hours,
with nine-car trains of rated capacity 1,700 passengers,
actually carrying around 4,500 passengers at peak hours.
The Mumbai rail network is spread at an expanse of 319 route
kilometers. 191 rakes(ratin-sets) of 9 car and 12 car
composition are utilized to run a total of 2226 train
Mumbai Metro is an underground and elevated rapid
transit system currently under construction.
Mumbai Monorail, currently under construction, will
eventually run from Jacob Circle to
Mumbai is well connected to
most parts of India by the
Indian Railways. Long-distance trains originate from
Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus,
Lokmanya Tilak Terminus,
Mumbai Central Station,
Andheri and Borivali.
Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (formerly
Sahar International Airport) is the main aviation hub in the
city and the busiest airport in India in terms of passenger
In 2007, it catered to over 25 million passengers. An
upgrade plan initiated in 2006, targeted at increasing the
capacity of the airport to handle up to 40 million
passengers annually by 2010, is expected to be completed on
Navi Mumbai International Airport to be built in the
area has been sanctioned by the Indian Government and will
help relieve the increasing traffic burden on the existing
Juhu Aerodrome was India's first airport, and now hosts
a flying club and a heliport.
Mumbai is served by two major
Mumbai Port Trust and
Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust, which lies just across the
Mumbai Port has one of the best natural harbours in the
world, and has extensive wet and dry dock accommodation
Jawaharlal Nehru Port, commissioned on 26 May 1989, is the
busiest and most modern major port in India.
It handles 55–60% of the country's total containerized
Mumbai is the headquarters of
Western Naval Command, and also an important base for
Ferry Wharf in
Mazagaon allow access to islands near the city.
Under colonial rule, tanks
were the only source of water in Mumbai. Many localities
have been named after them. The
BMC supplies potable water to the city from six lakes,
most of which comes from the Tulsi and Vihar lakes.
The Tansa lake supplies water to the western suburbs and
parts of the island city along the Western Railway.
The water is filtered at
which is Asia's largest water filtration plant.
India's first underground water tunnel is being built in
About 700 million litres of
water, out of a daily supply of 3500 million litres, is lost
by way of water thefts, illegal connections and leakages,
per day in Mumbai.
Almost all of Mumbai's daily refuse of 7,800 metric tonnes,
of which 40 metric tonnes is plastic waste,
is transported to dumping grounds in
Gorai in the northwest,
Mulund in the northeast, and
Deonar in the east.
Sewage treatment is carried out at
Bandra, and disposed off by two independent marine
outfalls of 3.4 km (2.1 mi) and 3.7 km (2.3 mi) at Bandra
and Worli respectively.
Electricity is distributed by
Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) in the
island city, and by
Tata Power, and
Mahavitaran (Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution
Co. Ltd) in the suburbs.
Consumption of electricity is growing faster than production
The largest telephone service provider is the state-owned
MTNL, which held a monopoly over fixed line and cellular
services up until 2000, and provides fixed line as well as
Cell phone coverage is
extensive, and the main service providers are
Idea Cellular and
Tata Indicom. Both
CDMA services are available in the city.
MTNL and Airtel also provide broadband internet service.
According to the 2001 census,
the population of Mumbai was 11,914,398,
According to extrapolations carried out by the World
Gazetteer in 2010, Mumbai has a population of 13,830,884
Mumbai Metropolitan Area has a population of 21,347,412.
The population density is estimated to be about 22,000
persons per square kilometre. Per 2001 census, Greater
Mumbai, the area under the administration of the BMC, has a
literacy rate of 77.45%,
higher than the national average of 64.8%.
The sex ratio was 774 (females
per 1,000 males) in the island city, 826 in the suburbs, and
811 as a whole in Greater Mumbai,
all numbers lower than the national average of 933 females
per 1,000 males.
The low sex ratio is due to a large number of male migrants
who come to the city to work.
Residents of Mumbai call
Mumbaikar, Mumbaite or Bombayite.
Mumbai has a large polyglot population like any other
metropolitan city of India.
Marathi, the official language of Maharashtra state, of
which Mumbai is the capital, is widely spoken and understood
in the city. Sixteen major
languages of India are also spoken in Mumbai, most
Gujarati and English.
English is extensively spoken and is the principal language
of the city's
white collar workforce. A colloquial form of Hindi,
Bambaiya — a blend of Marathi, Hindi,
Indian English and some invented words — is spoken on
A street in
Dharavi, second largest slums in Asia
Mumbai suffers from the same
major urbanisation problems seen in many fast growing cities
developing countries: widespread poverty and
unemployment, poor public health and poor civic and
educational standards for a large section of the population.
With available space at a premium, Mumbai residents often
reside in cramped, relatively expensive housing, usually far
from workplaces, and therefore requiring long commutes on
crowded mass transit, or clogged roadways. Many of them live
in close proximity to bus or train stations although
suburban residents spend significant time travelling
southward to the main commercial district.
Asia's second largest
is located in central Mumbai and houses 800,000 people.
With a literacy rate of 69%, the slums in Mumbai are the
most literate in
The number of migrants to
Mumbai from outside Maharashtra during the 1991–2001 decade
was 1.12 million, which amounted to 54.8% of the net
addition to the population of Mumbai.
The religions represented in
Sikhs (0.58%), with
Jews making up the rest of the population.
The linguistic/ethnic demographics are:
Gujaratis (19%), with the rest hailing from other parts
The oldest Muslim communities in Mumbai include the
Native Christians include
East Indians (ethnic group) Catholics who were converted
by the Portuguese, during the 16th century.
The city also has a small native
Jewish community, who migrated from the
Persian Gulf or
Yemen, probably 1600 years ago.
Parsis migrated to India from
Persia. Today, there are about 80,000 Parsis in Mumbai.
Mumbai's culture is a blend of
traditional festivals, food, music and theatres. The city
offers a cosmopolitan and diverse lifestyle with a variety
of food, entertainment and night life, available in a form
and abundance comparable to that in other world capitals.
Mumbai's history as a major trading centre has led to a
diverse range of cultures, religions and cuisines coexisting
in the city. This unique blend of cultures is due to the
migration of people from all over India since the British
Mumbai is the birthplace of
Phalke laid the foundations with silent movies followed
Marathi talkies—and the oldest film broadcast took place
in the early 20th century.
Mumbai also has a large number of cinema halls that feature
Bollywood, Marathi and
Hollywood movies. The world's largest
IMAX dome theatre is in the Wadala neighbourhood.
Mumbai International Film Festival
and the award ceremony of the
Filmfare Awards, the oldest and prominent film awards
given for Hindi film industry in India, are held in Mumbai.
Despite most of the professional theatre groups that formed
British Raj having disbanded by the 1950s, Mumbai has
developed a thriving "theatre movement" tradition in
Marathi, Hindi, English and other regional languages.
Contemporary art is featured
in both government-funded art spaces and private commercial
galleries. The government-funded institutions include the
Jehangir Art Gallery and the
National Gallery of Modern Art. Built in 1833, the
Asiatic Society of Bombay is one of the oldest
public libraries in the city.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya (formerly
The Prince of Wales Museum) is a renowned museum in
South Mumbai which houses rare ancient exhibits of
Mumbai has a zoo named
Jijamata Udyaan (formerly Victoria Gardens), which also
harbours a garden.
The rich literary traditions of the city have been
highlighted internationally by
Booker Prize winners
Marathi literature has been modernised in the works of
Mumbai based authors such as
Anant Kanekar, and
Gangadhar Gadgil, and is promoted through an annual
Sahitya Akademi Award, a literary honour bestowed by
National Academy of Letters.
The architecture of the city is a blend of
Art Deco, and other contemporary styles.
Most of the buildings during the British period, such as the
Victoria Terminus and
Bombay University, were built in Gothic Revival style.
Their architectural features include a variety of European
influences such as German gables, Dutch roofs, Swiss
timbering, Romance arches, Tudor casements, and traditional
There are also a few Indo-Saracenic styled buildings such as
Gateway of India.
Art Deco styled landmarks can be found along the
Marine Drive and west of the
Mumbai has the second largest number of Art Deco buildings
in the world after
In the newer suburbs, modern buildings dominate the
landscape. Mumbai has by far the largest number of
skyscrapers in India, with 956 existing buildings and
272 under construction as of 2009.
The Mumbai Heritage
Conservation Committee (MHCC), established in 1995,
formulates special regulations and by-laws to assist in the
conservation of the city's heritage structures.
Mumbai has two
UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Chhatrapati Shivaji
Terminus and the
Popular tourist attractions in the city are
Juhu Beach, and
Essel World is a theme park and amusement centre
situated close to Gorai Beach,
and includes Asia's largest theme water park, Water Kingdom.
Mumbai residents celebrate
both Western and
Durga Puja and
Maha Shivratri are some of the popular festivals in the
Kala Ghoda Arts Festival is an exhibition of a world of
arts that encapsulates works of artists in the fields of
music, dance, theater, and films.
A week long annual fair known as
Bandra Fair, starting on the following Sunday after 8
September, is celebrated by people of all faiths, to
Nativity of Mary, mother of
Jesus, on 8 September.
The Banganga Festival is a
two-day music festival, held annually in the month of
January, which is organised by the Maharashtra Tourism
Development Corporation (MTDC) at the historic
Banganga Tank in Mumbai.
The Elephanta Festival—celebrated every February on the
Elephanta Islands—is dedicated to classical Indian dance
and music and attracts performers from across the country.
Public holidays specific to the city and the state include
Maharashtra Day on 1 May, to celebrate the formation of
Maharashtra state on 1 May 1960.
Mumbai has numerous
newspaper publications, television and radio stations.
Marathi dailies enjoy the maximum readership share in the
city & the top
Marathi language newspapers are
Loksatta, Mumbai Chaufer,
Popular Marathi language magazines are Saptahik Sakaal,
Grihashobhika, Lokrajya, Lokprabha &
Popular English language newspapers published and sold in
Mumbai include the
Times of India,
Indian Express. Newspapers are also printed in other
Mumbai is home to Asia's oldest newspaper,
Bombay Samachar, which has been published in
Gujarati since 1822.
Bombay Durpan, the first Marathi newspaper, was
started by Balshastri Jambhekar in Mumbai in 1832.
Indian and international television channels can be
watched in Mumbai through one of the
Pay TV companies or the local cable television provider.
The metropolis is also the hub of many international media
corporations, with many news channels and print publications
having a major presence. The national television
Doordarshan, provides two free terrestrial channels,
while three main cable networks serve most households.
The wide range of cable
channels available includes
Mi Marathi, DD Sahyadri (All
Marathi channels), news channels such as
Zee 24 Taas, sports channels like
Star Sports, National entertainment channels like
Zee TV and
STAR Plus. News channels entirely dedicated to Mumbai
include Sahara Samay Mumbai.
Satellite television (DTH) has yet to gain mass
acceptance, due to high installation costs.
Prominent DTH entertainment services in Mumbai include
Dish TV and
There are twelve radio
stations in Mumbai, with nine broadcasting on the
FM band, and three
All India Radio stations broadcasting on the
Mumbai also has access to
Commercial radio providers such as
Conditional Access System (CAS) started by the
Union Government in 2006 met a poor response in Mumbai
due to competition from its sister technology
Direct-to-Home (DTH) transmission service.
Bollywood, the Hindi film industry based in Mumbai,
produces around 150–200 films every year.
The name Bollywood is a
portmanteau of Bombay and
The 2000s saw a growth in Bollywood's popularity overseas.
This led filmmaking to new heights in terms of quality,
cinematography and innovative story lines as well as
technical advances such as special effects and animation.
Studios in Goregaon, including
Film City, are the location for most movie sets.
Marathi film industry is also based in Mumbai.
Schools in Mumbai are either
"municipal schools" (run by the BMC) or private schools (run
by trusts or individuals), which in some cases receive
financial aid from the government.
The schools are affiliated either with the
Maharashtra State Board (MSBSHSE), The all-India
Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations
National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) or the
Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE) boards.
Marathi or English is the usual language of instruction.
The government run public schools lack many facilities, but
are the only option for poorer residents who cannot afford
the more expensive private schools.
10+2+3/4 plan, students complete ten years of schooling
and then enroll for two years in
Junior College, where they select one of three streams:
arts, commerce, or science.
This is followed by either a general degree course in a
chosen field of study, or a professional degree course, such
as law, engineering and medicine.
Most colleges in the city are affiliated with the
University of Mumbai, one of the largest universities in
the world in terms of the number of graduates.
Indian Institute of Technology (Bombay),
Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute (VJTI),
University Institute of Chemical Technology (UICT)
which are India's premier engineering and technology
SNDT Women's University are the other autonomous
universities in Mumbai.
Mumbai is also home to
National Institute of Industrial Engineering (NITIE),
Shailesh J. Mehta School of Management,
Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies (JBIMS),
S P Jain Institute of Management and Research,
K. J. Somaiya Institute of Management Studies and Research,
Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies (NMIMS) and
several other management schools.
Government Law College and
Sydenham College, respectively the oldest law and
commerce colleges in India, are based in Mumbai.
Sir J. J. School of Art is Mumbai's oldest art
Mumbai is home to two
prominent research institutions: the
Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), and the
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC).
The BARC operates
CIRUS, a 40 MW nuclear research reactor at their
Cricket is the most popular
sport in the city. Due to a shortage of grounds,
various modified versions (generally referred to as
gully cricket) are played everywhere. Mumbai is also home to
Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI)
Indian Premier League (IPL).
Mumbai cricket team represents the city in the
Ranji Trophy and has won 39 titles, the most by any
The city is also represented by the
Mumbai Indians in the
Indian Premier League.
The city has two international
cricket grounds, the
Wankhede Stadium and the
Brabourne Stadium. The first cricket test match in India
was played in Mumbai at Bombay Gymkhana.
The biggest cricketing event to be staged in the city so far
2006 ICC Champions Trophy final which was played at the
Eminent cricketers from Mumbai include
Football (soccer) is another popular sport in the city,
FIFA World Cup and the English
Premier League being followed widely.
I-League, Mumbai is represented by three teams,
Field hockey has declined in popularity, due to the rise
of cricket. Mumbai is home to the
Maratha Warriors, the only team from Maharashtra
competing in the
Premier Hockey League.
Every February, Mumbai holds
derby races at the
Mcdowell's Derby is also held in February at the
Turf club in Mumbai.
Formula One racing has been rising in recent years,
and in 2008, the
Force India F1 team car was unveiled in Mumbai.
The city is planning to build its own F1 track and various
sites in the city were being chalked out, of which the
authorities have planned to zero down on Marve-Malad or
Panvel-Kalyan land. If approved, the track will be clubbed
with a theme park and will spread over 400 to 500 acres.
In March 2004, the Mumbai Grand Prix was part of the
F1 powerboat world championship.
In 2004, the annual
Mumbai Marathon was established in a bid to bring the
sports discipline to the Indian public.
Mumbai has also played host to the
Kingfisher Airlines Tennis Open, an
International Series tournament of the
ATP World Tour, in 2006 and 2007
Source : Wikipedia