The International Cricket Council (ICC)
is the international
It was founded as the Imperial Cricket Conference
in 1909 by
representatives from England, Australia and South Africa, renamed the
International Cricket Conference
in 1965, and took up its current name in
The ICC has 105 members: 10
Full Members that play official
Associate Members, and 60
Affiliate Members. The ICC is responsible for the organisation and
governance of cricket's major international tournaments, most notably the
Cricket World Cup.
It also appoints the
referees that officiate at all sanctioned Test matches,
Twenty20 Internationals. It promulgates the ICC Code of Conduct,
which sets professional standards of discipline for international cricket,
and also co-ordinates action against
match-fixing through its Anti-Corruption and Security Unit (ACSU). The ICC
does not control bilateral fixtures between member countries (which include all
matches), it does not govern domestic cricket in member countries, and it
does not make the laws of the game, which remain under the control of the
Sharad Pawar, former
president of the
Board of Control for Cricket in India is the President of the Council who
David Morgan the chairman of the
and Wales Cricket Board. The current
is Haroon Lorgat.
On 15 June 1909 representatives from
South Africa met at
Lord's and founded the Imperial Cricket Conference. Membership was
confined to the governing bodies of cricket within the
British Empire where
Test cricket was played.
New Zealand and
West Indies were elected as Full Members in 1926, doubling the number of
Test-playing nations to six. That year it was also agreed to make a change in
membership, with election being for; "governing bodies of cricket in countries
within the Empire to which cricket teams are sent, or which send teams to
England." However the United States who met this criteria were not made members.
After the formation of Pakistan
in 1947, it was given
Test status in 1952, becoming the seventh Test-playing nation. In May 1961
South Africa left the Commonwealth and therefore lost membership.
In 1965, the Imperial Cricket Conference was renamed the
International Cricket Conference and new rules adopted to permit the
election of countries from outside the Commonwealth. This led to the expansion
of the Conference, with the admission of Associate Members. Associates were each
entitled to one vote, while the Foundation and Full Members were entitled to two
votes on ICC resolutions. Foundation Members retained a right of veto.
Sri Lanka was admitted as a Full Member in 1981, returning the number of
Test-playing nations to seven. In 1989, new rules were adopted and International
Cricket Conference changed its name to the current name, the
International Cricket Council. South Africa was re-elected as a Full
Member of the ICC in 1991, after the end of
apartheid; this was followed in 1992 by the admission of
Zimbabwe as the ninth Test-playing nation.
Bangladesh was admitted as the tenth Test-playing nation in 2000.
The ICC's offices in
From its formation the ICC had
Ground as its home, and from 1993 had its offices in the "Clock Tower"
building at the nursery end of the ground. The independent ICC was funded
initially by commercial exploitation of the rights to the World Cup of One Day
International cricket. As not all Member countries had double-tax agreements
with England, it was necessary to protect cricket's revenues by creating a
company [ICC Development (International) Pty Ltd - known as IDI] outside the UK.
This was established in Jan 1994 and was based in Monaco.
For the remainder of the nineties, the administration of IDI was a modest
affair. But with the negotiation of a bundle of rights to all ICC events from
2001–2008, revenues available to International cricket and the ICC member
countries rose substantially. This led to a growth in the number of commercial
staff employed by IDI in Monaco. It also had the disadvantage that the Council's
cricket administrators, who remained at Lord's, were separated from their
commercial colleagues in Monaco. The Council decided to seek ways of bringing
all of their staff together in one office whilst protecting their commercial
income from tax.
The option of staying at Lord's was investigated and a request was made,
through Sport England,
to the British Government to allow the ICC to have all its personnel (including
those working on commercial matters) in London - but be given special exemption
from paying UK
corporation tax on its commercial income. The British Government was
unwilling to create a precedent and would not agree to this request. As a
consequence the ICC examined other locations and eventually settled on the
emirate of Dubai in the
United Arab Emirates.
In August 2005 the ICC moved its offices to
Dubai, and subsequently closed
its offices at Lord's and Monaco. The move to Dubai was made after an 11-1 vote
by the ICC's Executive Board in favour.
Whilst the principal driver of the ICC's move to
Dubai was the wish to bring its
main employees together in one tax efficient location, a secondary reason was
the wish to move offices closer to the increasingly important new centres of
cricketing power in South Asia.
Lord's had been a logical venue when the ICC had been administered by the
MCC (a situation that lasted until 1993). But the growing power of India in
world cricket had made the continued control of international cricket by a
British private members club (the
MCC) anachronistic and unsustainable. A direct consequence of the changes
and reforms instituted in 1993 was eventually to be the move away from Lord's to
a more neutral venue.
Rules and regulation
The International Cricket Council overlooks playing conditions, bowling
reviews, and other ICC regulations. Even though the ICC doesn't have copyright
to the laws of cricket
and only the
MCC may change the laws, nowadays this would usually only be done after
discussions with the game's global governing body, the ICC. The ICC also has a "Code
of Conduct" to which teams and players in international matches are required
to adhere. Where breaches of this code occur the ICC can apply sanctions,
usually fines. In 2008 the ICC imposed 19 penalties on players.
The ICC generates income from the tournaments in organises, primarily the
Cricket World Cup,
and it distributes the majority of that income to its members. Sponsorship and
television rights of the World Cup brought in over
billion between 2007 and 2015, by far the ICC’s main source of income.
In the nine month accounting period to 31 December 2007 the ICC had operating
income of USD 12.66 million, mainly from member subscriptions and sponsorship.
In contrast event income was USD 285.87 million, including USD 239 million from
the 2007 World Cup. There was also investment income of USD 6.695 million in the
The ICC has no income streams from the bilateral international cricket
Day International and
Internationals), that account for the great majority of the international
playing schedule, as they are owned and run by its members. It has sought to
create other new events to augment its World Cup revenues. These include the
ICC Champions Trophy
ICC Super Series played in Australia in 2005. However these expansion has
not been as successful as the ICC hoped. The Super Series was widely seen as a
failure and is not expected to be repeated, and India called for the Champions
Trophy to be scrapped in 2006
The Champions Trophy 2004 event was referred to in
Wisden 2005 by the editor as a "turkey of a tournament" and a "fiasco";
although the 2006 edition was seen as a greater success due to a new format.
The ICC World
Twenty20, first played in 2007, was a success. The ICC's current plan is to
have an international tournament every year, with a Twenty20 World Cup played in
even number years, the World Cup continuing to be held the year before the
Olympic Games, and the ICC Champions Trophy in the remaining year of the cycle.
This cycle will begin in 2010, thus the Twenty20 World Cup will be played for a
second consecutive year in that year.
Umpires and referees
The ICC appoints international
referees, sponsored by
Emirates Airline, who officiate at all sanctioned Test matches, One-Day
Internationals and Twenty20 Internationals. The ICC operates 3 panels of
umpires: namely the
Elite Panel, the
International Panel, and the
Associates and Affiliates Panel.
As of January 2009, the Elite Panel includes eleven umpires. In theory, two
umpires from the Elite Panel officiate at every Test match, whilst one Elite
Panel umpire stands in ODI matches together with an umpire from the
International Panel. In practice, members of the International Panel stand in
occasional Test matches, as this is viewed as a good opportunity to see whether
they can cope at the Test level, and whether they should be elevated to the
Elite Panel. The Elite Panel are full-time employees of the ICC, although do
still, very occasionally umpire
in their country of residence. The average, annual, officiating schedule for
Elite Umpires is 12 Test matches and 15 ODIs, a potential on-field workload of
75 days per year.
The International Panel is made up of officials nominated from each of the
ten Test-playing cricket boards. The Panel Members officiate in ODI matches in
their home country, and assist the Elite Panel at peak times in the cricket
calendar when they can be appointed to overseas ODI and Test matches.
International Panel members also undertake overseas umpiring assignments such as
Under 19 Cricket World Cup in order to improve their knowledge and
understanding of overseas conditions, and help them prepare for possible
promotion onto the Elite Panel. Some of these umpires also officiates in the
Cricket World Cup. Each of the Test cricket boards nominates a "third umpire"
who can be called upon to review certain on-field decisions through instant
television replays. All third umpires are first-class umpires in their own
county, and the role is seen as a step onto the International Panel, and then
the Elite Panel.
The newest panel of umpires, set up in February 2005, is the Associates and
Affiliates Umpires Panel. It was designed to offer a pathway to top level
umpiring for officials from the ICC's 104 Associate and Affiliate Member
countries. As of January 2009, it has 10 members from countries such as
Fiji. These umpires officiate
ODIs between Associate Members,
Intercontinental Cup matches and other Associate and Affiliate tournaments
such as the ICC
World Cup Qualifier.
There is also an
of ICC Referees who act as the independent representative of the ICC at all
Test and ODI matches. As of January 2009, it has 6 members, all highly
experienced former international cricketers. The Referees do not have the power
to report players or officials (which has to be done by the umpires), but they
are responsible for conducting hearings under the ICC Code of Conduct and
imposing penalties as required at matches, ranging from an official reprimand to
a lifetime ban from cricket. Decisions can be appealed, but the original
decision is upheld in most cases..
The ICC has three classes of membership: Full Members, the ten governing
bodies of teams that play official Test matches; Associate Members, the 34
governing bodies in countries where cricket is firmly established and organised
but which do not qualify for Full Membership; and Affiliate Members, the 60
governing bodies in countries where the ICC recognises that cricket is played
according to the
Laws of Cricket.
These regional bodies aim to organise, promote and develop the game of
Competitions and awards
The ICC organises various
One-Day cricket competitions:
The ICC has instituted the
ICC Awards to
recognise and honour the best international cricket players of the previous 12
months. The inaugural ICC Awards ceremony was held on 7 September 2004, in
The ICC has also had to deal with drugs and
bribery scandals involving top cricketers. Following the
corruption scandals by cricketers connected with the legal and illegal
bookmaking markets, the ICC set up an Anti-Corruption and Security Unit (ACSU)
in 2000 under the retired
Commissioner of the
London Metropolitan Police,
Lord Condon. Amongst the corruption on which they have reported was that of
South African captain
Hansie Cronje who had accepted substantial sums of money from an Indian
bookmaker for under-performing or ensuring that certain matches had a
pre-determined result. Similarly, the former
Mohammad Azharuddin and
Ajay Jadeja were investigated, found guilty of match-fixing, and banned from
playing cricket (for life and for five years, respectively). The ACSU continues
to monitor and investigate any reports of corruption in cricket and protocols
have been introduced which for example prohibit the use of
mobile telephones in
Prior to the 2007
Cricket World Cup ICC Chief Executive
Malcolm Speed warned
against any corruption and said that the ICC would be vigilant and intolerant
Global Cricket Academy
Global Cricket Academy (GCA) is located at
Dubai Sports City
in the United Arab
Emirates. The GCA's facilities include two ovals, each with 10 turf pitches,
outdoor turf and synthetic practice facilities, indoor practice facilities
including hawk eye technology and a cricket specific gymnasium.
Rod Marsh has been
appointed as the Academy's Director of Coaching. The opening, originally planned
for 2008, took place in 2010.
Cricket World Cup
ICC Cricket World Cup is held every 4 years and is one of the biggest
cricket events in the history of the sport. It is watched by millions all over
the world. The next World Cup is to be held from the 19th of February 2011 to
the 2nd of April 2011
ICC Cricket World
The International Cricket Council telecasts a weekly program on television
called ICC Cricket World. It is produced by Sportsbrand.
It is a weekly 30 minute program providing the latest cricket news, recent
cricket action including all Test and One-Day International matches, as well as
off-field features and interviews
Source : wikipedia