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Nāgpur About this sound pronunciation (Marathi: नागपूर) is a city in the state of Maharashtra, the largest city in the central India. With a population of around 2,420,000, Nagpur UA is the 13th largest urban conglomeration in India,[4] In addition to being the seat of annual winter session of Maharashtra state assembly "Vidhan Sabha", Nagpur is also a major commercial and political center of the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, and is also famous throughout the country as "Orange City" for being a major trade center of oranges that are cultivated in the region.[5] In addition, the city also derives political importance from being the headquarters for the Hindu nationalist organisation RSS and an important location for the Dalit Buddhist movement.

Nagpur lies precisely at the center of the country with the Zero Mile Marker indicating the geographical center of India.[6] The city was founded by the Gonds but later became part of the Maratha Empire under the Bhonsles. The British East India Company took over Nagpur in the 19th century and made it the capital of the Central Provinces and Berar. After the first reorganization of states, the city lost its capital status but according to the informal "Nagpur Pact" between political leaders it was made the second capital of Maharashtra.


The Nag River, a tributary of the Kanhan River, flows in a serpentine path and is therefore named "Nag", the Marathi word for Cobra. According to Dr. B. R. Ambedkar people of Nagpur belong to nag dynasty who were followers of the Buddha. And hence, the river and city is named as Nagpur. While others says that the river flows through the old city of Nagpur and hence the city is named after this river. "Pur" is common suffix given to cities, villages and towns across India, and is often simply translated "city".[7] The seal of Nagpur Municipal Corporation depicts a cobra in the water of a river.

[edit] History

Map of Nagpur district with major towns and rivers.

Human existence around present day Nagpur city can be traced back 3000 years to 8th century BC. Mehir burial sites at Drugdhamna (near Mhada colony) indicate megalithic culture existed around Nagpur and is still followed in present times.[8] The first reference to the name Nagpur is found in a 10th century copper-plate inscription discovered at Devali in the neighbouring Wardha district. The inscription is a record of grant of a village situated in the visaya (district) of Nagpura-Nandivardhana during time of Rastrakuta king Krsna III in the Saka year 862 (940 CE).[9] Towards the end of third century King Vindhyasakti is known to have ruled the Nagpur region. In the 4th century Vakataka Dynasty ruled over the Nagpur region and surrounding areas and had good relations with the Gupta Empire. The Vakataka king Prithvisena I moved his capital to Nagardhan (ancient name Nandivardhana), located at 28 kilometers (17 mi) from Nagpur.[10] After the Vakatakas, the region came under the rule of the Hindu kingdoms of the Badami Chalukyas, the Rashtrakutas, and finally the Yadavas. In AD 1296 Allauddin Khilji invaded the Yadava Kingdom after capturing Deogiri, after which the Tughlaq Dynasty came to power in 1317. In the 17th century, the Mughal Empire conquered the region; however, regional administration was carried out by the Gond kingdom of Deogarh-Nagpur in the Chhindwara district of the modern-day state of Madhya Pradesh.

Recent history ascribes the founding of Nagpur to Bakht Buland, a prince of the kingdom of Deogarh-Nagpur. The next Raja of Deogarh was Chand Sultan, who resided principally in the country below the hills, fixing his capital at Nagpur which he made a walled town. On Chand Sultan's death in 1739, Wali Shah, an illegitimate son of Bakht Buland, usurped the throne and Chand Sultan's widow invoked the aid of the Maratha leader Raghuji Bhonsle of Berar in the interest of her sons Akbar Shah and Burhan Shah. The usurper was put to death and the rightful heirs placed on the throne. After 1743, a series of Maratha rulers came to power, starting with Raghoji Bhonsle, who conquered the territories of Deogarh, Chanda and Chhattisgarh by 1751.

In 1803 Raghoji II joined the Peshwas against the British in the Second Anglo-Maratha War, but the British prevailed. After Raghoji II's death in 1816, his son Parsaji was deposed and murdered by Mudhoji II. Despite the fact that he had entered into a treaty with the British in the same year, Mudhoji joined the Peshwa in the Third Anglo-Maratha War in 1817 against the British, but suffered a defeat at Sitabuldi in present-day Nagpur city. The fierce battle was a turning point as it laid the foundations of the downfall of the Bhonsles and paved the way for the British acquisition of Nagpur city.[11] Mudhoji was deposed after a temporary restoration to the throne, after which the British placed Raghoji III the grandchild of Raghoji II, on the throne. During the rule of Raghoji III (which lasted till 1840), the region was administered by a British resident. In 1853, the British took control of Nagpur after Raghoji III died without leaving an heir.

Central Provinces and Berar, 1903. Princely states are shown in yellow.

From 1853 to 1861, the Nagpur Province (which consisted of the present Nagpur region, Chhindwara, and Chhatisgarh) became part of the Central Provinces and Berar and came under the administration of a commissioner under the British central government, with Nagpur as its capital. Berar was added in 1903. Tata group started the country's first textile mill at Nagpur,[12] formally known as Central India Spinning and Weaving Company Ltd. The company was popularly known as "Empress Mills" as it was inaugurated on 1 January 1877, the day queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India.

The Non-cooperation movement was launched in the Nagpur session of 1920. The city witnessed a HinduMuslim riot in 1923 which had profound impact on K. B. Hedgewar,[13] who in 1925 founded the RSS, a Hindu nationalist organization in Nagpur with an idea of creating a Hindu nation. After the 1927 Nagpur riots RSS gained further popularity in Nagpur and the organization grew nationwide.

After Indian Independence in 1947, Central Provinces and Berar became a province of India, and in 1950 became the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, again with Nagpur as its capital. However when the Indian states were reorganized along linguistic lines in 1956, the Nagpur region and Berar were transferred to Bombay state, which in 1960 was split between the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat. At a formal public ceremony on October 14, 1956 in Nagpur B. R. Ambedkar along with his supporters converted to Buddhism starting Dalit Buddhist movement which is still active. In 1994, the city witnessed its most violent day in modern times in form of Gowari stampede deaths.

Nagpur completed 300 years of establishment in the year 2002. A big celebration was organized to mark the event.
Also see: Nagpur state

[edit] Geography and climate


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Average max. and min. temperatures in C

Precipitation totals in mm

Source: World Weather Information Service

[edit] Geography

Nagpur lies on the Deccan plateau of the Indian Peninsula and has a mean altitude of 310 meters above sea level.[14] The underlying rock strata is covered with alluvial deposits resulting from the flood plain of the Kanhan River. In some places these give rise to granular sandy soil. In low lying areas which are poorly drained, the soil is alluvial clay with poor permeability characteristics. In the eastern part of city crystalline metamorphic rocks such as gneiss, schist and granites are found, while in the northern part yellowish sand stones and clays of the lower Gondwana formations are found. [15]

Nagpur city is dotted with natural and man-made lakes with Ambazari lake being the largest. Other natural lakes include Gorewada Lake and Telangkhedi lake. Sonegaon lake along with Gandhisagar lake are man-made lakes created by cities historical rulers. Nag river, Pilli nadi along with nallas form the natural drainage pattern for the city.[16] [17] Nagpur is known for its greenery, and was judged as the cleanest and second greenest in India after Chandigarh.[18]

[edit] Climate

As it is located at centre of Indian peninsula far from Bay of Bengal and Arabian sea, Nagpur has a tropical wet and dry climate with dry conditions prevailing for most of the year . Nagpur city receives an annual rainfall of 1,205 mm (47.44 in) from monsoon rains during June to September.[19] The highest recorded rainfall was 304 mm on July 14, 1994.[20] Summers are extremely hot lasting from March to June, with maximum temperatures occurring in May. Winter lasts from November to January, during which temperatures can drop below 10C (50F).[14] The highest recorded temperature in the city was 48.6 C (119.5 F) on 26 May 1954,[21] while the lowest was 3 C.

[hide]Climate data for Nagpur















Record high C (F)














Average high C (F)














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Precipitation mm (inches)














Source: [22]

[edit] Civic administration

Vidhan Bhavan

Nagpur is administered by Nagpur Municipal Corporation (NMC) which is democratically elected civic governing body. Nagpur Improvement Trust (NIT) works with NMC and carries out works like development of the civic infrastructure and new urban areas on behalf of NMC.[23] The city is divided in 10 zones which are in turn divided into 136 wards.[24] Each ward is represented by a corporator, majority of whom are elected in local elections.

Nagpur is headquarters of national level scientific and governmental establishments like the National Environmental Engineering Research Institute NEERI, the Central Institute of Cotton Research (CICR), the National Research Centre for Citrus, the National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, the Jawaharlal Nehru National Aluminium Research and Development Centre, and the Petroleum And Explosives Safety Organisation (PESO) (formerly known as Department of Explosives).

[edit] Military

Sitabuldi fort is home to Indian Army's 118th infantry battalion.

Nagpur is an important city for the Indian armed forces. The city is the headquarters of Maintenance Command of Indian Air Force. The Indian Army's Ordinance factory and staff college are located in the western part of the city. Nagpur's suburb Kamptee has cantonment of Regimental center of Indian Army's Brigade made up of National Cadet Corps' Officers' Training School, Institute of Military Law and other establishments. Nagpur's National Civil Defense College provides civil defense and disaster management training to pupils from all over India and abroad. Indian Air Force's giant IL-76 transport planes nicknamed "Gajraj" are also based in Nagpur.[25]

[edit] Demographics

Marathi, the official language of Maharashtra, is the local language in Nagpur. The Varhadi dialect of Marathi is spoken in and around Nagpur city. Urdu and Hindi are also spoken. Due to its central location Nagpur has become cosmopolitan with a large number of residents from neighboring states of Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh. The number of migrants to Nagpur from outside Maharashtra during the 1991-2001 decade was 2.1 lakh making Nagpur the fourth most favored destination in state.[27]

In 2001, the urban population was 2,129,500, and there were around 410,000 households in the city. 726,664 people lived in slums making Nagpur second-most slum-populated city in Maharashtra after Mumbai.[28] Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for around 25% of the population.

The sex ratio was 936 females per 1000 males. Around 99.4% of the population was engaged in non-agricultural activities, attesting to the overwhelmingly urban character of Nagpur city.[29] According to 2006 survey of National Crime Record Bureau Nagpur has the highest crime rate of 470.6 in Maharashtra as compared to other mega-cities of the state.[30]

[edit] Economy

Nagpur branch of the Reserve Bank of India

Nagpur has been the main center of commerce in the Vidarbha region since early days and is an important trading location. However, Nagpur's economic importance had gradually declined relative to Mumbai and Pune after the merging of Vidarbha into the Maharashtra because of a period of neglect by the state government.[31] During the slowdown, state and central government offices were a major source of employment in the city.

Nagpur's economy is currently recovering from past slowdowns[32] and city has attracted Rupees 5,000 crore in investment in 2004.[33] The city is important for the banking sector as it hosts the regional office of Reserve Bank of India, which was opened on September 10, 1956. The Reserve Bank of India has two branches in nagpur in which one of it houses India's entire gold assets.[34] Sitabuldi market in central Nagpur, known as the Heart of the city, is the major commercial market area of city.

The Butibori industrial area is the largest in all of Asia in terms of area.[35] The estate's largest unit is of Indo Rama Synthetics, which manufactures synthetic polyester yarn. Other units in Butibori include the power transmission company KEC, Hyundai Unitech, ACC Nihon Castings Ltd.[36] Koradi Thermal Power Station and Khaparkheda Thermal Power Station are the two major thermal power stations located near Nagpur and operated by MSPGCL.

The Hingna industrial estate located on the western fringes of the city is made up of around 900 small and medium industrial units. The major ones among them are tractor manufacturing plant of Mahindra and Mahindra, casting units of NECO Ltd. (the country's largest casting group),[37] units of International Combustion, Bajaj Auto group, Candico (the second largest confectionery manufacturing plant in India [38]), Ajanta toothbrushes, and Sanvijay Group (largest steel rolling group of companies for long products in Central India).[39] Nagpur is home to ice-cream manufacturer Dinshaws, Indian dry food manufacturer Haldiram's and Ayurvedic product company Vicco.[40]

[edit] Education

Nagpur is a major education centre in Central India.[41] Founded in 1923, Nagpur University[42] is one of the oldest in the country.[43] The city has both municipal schools (run by the NMC) as well as private schools (run by trusts or individuals), which in some cases receive financial aid from the government. The city's school system follows a 10+2+3/4 plan, students have the option to enroll in Junior college after 10 years of schooling and later degree courses for three or four years depending on the field. The school system has a geographical jurisdiction over the five districts of Nagpur division in addition to giving affiliation to hundreds of colleges. Nagpur has one veterinary college Veterinary College,[44] and three Medical colleges namely Government Medical College and Hospital (GMCH), Indira Gandhi Medical College (IGMC) and Lata Mangeshkar Medical College (LMC). and 1 Dental college. In addition, Nagpur has several engineering colleges which provide education in various specialty courses. Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology (VNIT) is one of the reputed technical institutes in the country. Nagpur is also home to India's only National Fire Service College that provides a graduation course in Fire Engineering. Nagpur has an I.G.N.O.U regional centre located at Amravati Road where a large pool of students from all over the Vidarbha region pursue education from certificate courses to Masters degree programs.

[edit] Culture and Places of Interest

The city contains people from other Indian states as well as people belonging to the world's major faiths, and yet is known for staying calm during communal conflicts in India.[45] Nagpur plays host to cultural events throughout the year. Cultural and literary societies in Nagpur include Vidarbha Sahitya Sangh (for development of Marathi), Vidarbha Rashtrabhasha Prachar Samiti (promotion and spreading Hindi) and Vidarbha Hindi Sahitya Sammelan (for promoting Hindi). Marathi Sahitya Sammelan, the conference on Marathi Literature were held twice in Nagpur city. The South Central Cultural Centre also sponsors cultural events in Nagpur city, such as the Orange City Craft Mela and Folk Dance Festival, Vidarbhawhich is noted for its numerous folk-dances.[46] Newspapers are published from Nagpur in Marathi, English and Hindi. In addition, the Government of Maharashtra organizes a week long Kalidas Festival, a series of music and dance performances, by national level artists.[47]

The Hitavada is one of the oldest English daily newspaper published in central India. The Nagpur Central Museum (estb. 1863) maintains collections are mainly for Vidarbha region.[48] The Raman Science Centre promotes scientific knowledge and has a 133 seat planetarium.[49] The present day Maharajbagh zoo was originally a garden developed by the Bhonsle rulers.[50] The state government has approved a new safari park of international standards besides Gorewada Lake.

Three brothers Ghulam Ali (Kotwal), Mohammad Saaduddin (Subedar) and Mohammad Saladuddin (Minister and Kotwal) from Jhajjar are remembered as great scholars of Urdu and Persian during the reign of Maharaja Senasaheb Subha Chhatrapati Raghuji Bapusaheb Bhonsle III. They founded 'Jhajjar Bagh' at Hansapuri (Now Mominpura). In this location, they built their residence 'Aina-e Mahal', a well and a Masjid (now Masjid Ahle Hadith). 'Jhajjar Bagh' also known as 'Subedar ka Bada' was located where nowadays Mohammad Ali Road at Mominpura, Jamia Masjid, Mohammad Ali Sarai and Furqania Madrasa are located.[51]

Deekshabhoomi is a major center of the Dalit Buddhist movement

Deekshabhoomi, the largest hollow stupa and an important place of dalit buddhist movement, is located in Nagpur.[52] Every year on the day of Vijayadashmi i.e. Dasehara, followers of Ambedkar visit deekshabhoomi. The 14th April, which is birth date of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar is celebrated. The most famous Temple in Nagpur is Tekdi Ganesh Mandir, and is said to be one of the Swayambhu (means Self-Manifested) temple in city. Sri Poddareshwar Ram Mandir and Shri Mahalaxmi Devi temple of Koradi are important Hindu temples.[53] Religious events are observed in the city throughout the year. Ram Navami is celebrated in Nagpur with shobha yatra with a procession of floats depicting events from the Ramayana.[54] Processions are also held on important festivals of other religions such as Eid E Milad, Guru Nanak Jayanti, Mahavir Jayanti, Durga puja, Ganesh Puja and Moharram. Like the rest of India, Nagpurkars celebrate major Hindu festivals like Diwali, Holi and Dussera with enthusiasm. Celebrations lasting for several days are held on Ganesh Chaturthi and Durga Puja festivals in virtually every small locality in the city. The city also contains a sizable Muslim population, and famous places of worship for Muslims include the Jama Masjid-Mominpura and Bohri Jamatkhana-Itwari.

VCA Stadium at Jamtha, Nagpur

The Vidarbha Cricket Association Ground (VCA) in Nagpur is one of the nine test venues in the country. A new stadium of VCA called Vidarbha Cricket Association Stadium has been built on Wardha road with a seating capacity of 45,000 people at cost of Indian Rupee ₹75 crore (US$16.28 million).[55][56][57] INOX Wardhaman Nagar (area:45,000 square feet) is the first multiplex in city. Now days, city has 3 more multiplexes including Inox Jaswant Tuli Mall, Cinemax Sitabuldi & Sangam Adlabs Sakkardara.

[edit] Cuisine

The Vidharbha region has its own distinctive cuisine known as the Varhadi cuisine or Saoji Cuisine. Saoji food, or Saoji Varhadi, is the traditional food and is famous for its spicy taste. The special spices used in the gravy include black pepper, dry coriander, bay leaves, grey cardamom, cinnamon, cloves, and ample use of poppy seeds (Khus-Khus) and powdered coconut. Non-vegetarian food especially chicken and mutton are commonly eaten in Nagpur, but vegetarian food can also be prepared especially using boiled Potato, Paneer or Soya chunks. Saoji food, although very spicy, is not harmful to the body and does not lead to any digestive problems, as the process of cooking has been modified to overcome any health problems.[58]

[edit] Transport

[edit] Rail

Due to its central location in India, the Nagpur Railway Station is an important railway junction and a transit terminal for trains that connect the country lengthwise and breadthwise, especially trains connecting India's major metropolises, Mumbai to Howrah-Kolkata, Delhi and Jammu to Chennai, Hydrabad, Bangalore and Kanyakumari in the South, as well as western cities such as Pune and Ahemedabad.[59] The city is the Divisional Head Quarters for the Central Railway and South East Central Railway Zone of Indian Railways. In 2010 Jan aahar opened its outlet in Nagpur Railway station. Jan aadhar has only a few of its outlets in India. Jan aadhar offers light and healthy food at very affordable prices.

[edit] Road

Public transport bus in Nagpur

Nagpur is a major junction for roadways as India's two major national highways, Kanyakumari-Varanasi (NH 7) and Hajira-Kolkata (NH-6), passing through the city.[59] One more highway number 69 connect Nagpur to Obaidullaganj near Bhopal. Nagpur is at the junction of two Asian Highways namely AH43 Agra to Matara, Sri Lanka and AH46 connecting Kharagpur, India to Dhule, India. Auto rickshaws operate in most parts of Nagpur and are the main form of hired transport within the city.

The new national highway is being built between Nagpur and Mumbai, an alternative to the existing NH 6, and will be a boost to the under developed regions of Vidarbha and Marathwada in Maharashtra state.

Nagpur's Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar International Airport has the busiest Air traffic control room in India.

[edit] Air transport

Nagpur's Air Traffic Control (ATC) is the busiest in India,[59] with more than 300 international flights flying over the city every day in 2004.[60] In October 2005, Nagpur's Sonegaon Airport was declared an international airport and was renamed Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar International Airport.[61]

Nagpur is currently witnessing an economic boom as the "Multi-modal International Cargo Hub and Airport at Nagpur (MIHAN)" is under development. MIHAN will be used for handling heavy cargo coming from south east Asia and the Middle East. The project will include Indian Rupee ₹10,000 crore (US$2.17 billion) Special Economic Zone (SEZ)[62] for Information Technology (IT) companies.


Source : Wikipedia



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